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Full text of "Little journeys to the homes of great business men. Robert Owen"

Vol. 24 



JANUARY, MCMIX 



No. 1 




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great man is 
known by 
three signs — 
generosity in the design, 
humanity in the execu- 
tion and moderation in 

SUCCeSS —B I S MA RCK 





Entered it the posteffire at But Aurora. New Tor It, tor transmission ax second-dust matter 
Copyright, 1Mb, br Elbert Hubbard, Editor an. j Pubiiaber. 



Is Christianity Declining? 

HAT Debate was pulled off, without 
police interference, exactly as scheduled. 
There was enough of the unexpected, so 
no one went to sleep, leaving word to be 
called when it was over. No favor was asked or 
given. The rounds were rapid and exciting. 
One thing I discovered, and that was that Dr. 
Albertson is a great talker. He is also a good looker. 
His manly six feet of height, and two hundred 
pounds of chest=tone,with faultless double=breast= 
ed Prince Albert, put me to the bad in betting 
circles. It was two to one in favor of the Dominie. 

But when it came to logic I put the thing all over 
him. And I so explained to the Roycrofters, in 
conclave assembled, when I got home at Sun=up. 
<fl Afterward, I learned that on the same evening 
that I was telling the truth to my flock, he was 
explaining to his congregation how he had run 
the oratorical Steam=Roller over me. 
So both sides are smiling. A full report of the 
Debate will be found in THE FRA, that Magazine 
of Kosmic Kilowatts, for January. Start your sub= 
scription to THE FRA with the January issue. 



Special Attention 

All Loyal Royal Roycrofters — members of 
the Immortal Clan — are urgently requested 
not to display Roy croft Books in unpro- 
tected places. <J It is not fair to your friend 
to introduce an unexpected temptation 
while he awaits your arrival in the Library. 
•I To avoid Temptation, insure that sense 
of Ease and Security on your part, and 
make possible many Happy Hours for 
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stant patrons of our friends. ^ Our little 
Books and Things are " Something New 
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The Roycrofters, East Aurora, N. Y. 

By Special Appointment— Bookmakers to. His Most Gracious Highness, 
the Prince of Good Taste. 



J|oto 'Pout 3t ? 

Hey thar, 
Fra, 

Whar yer goin', 
Snortin' an' blowin' 
Like all-persessed ? 
Say, you jest 
Stop 

An' listen to my yawp, 

Just a minit, . 

Cause they 's something in it. 

You been a-Iambastin' 

Folks 'bout tastin' an' wastin' 

Stuff they bolt an' gulp an' guzzle 

Inter their arliment'ry puzzle, 

An' hollerin' 

' Bout swollerin' 

An' tellin' 'em ter chew, 

An' chew an' chew, 

An' CHEW IT, 

An' stick to it 

Ter beat ther band, 

An' show some grit an' sand, , 

— Jest like ol' Hod Fletcher, 

But, say Fra — I betcher 

Yer did n't stop ter think 

Whilst yer waz a-slingin' uv all that there ink 

'Bout gittin ev'ry drop uv mastikashun jooce, 

That was a-goin' to wear yer teeth out like th' Dooce! 



— Arthur Plummer 



THE ROYCROFTERS 

EAST AURORA, ERIE COUNTY, NEW YORK 



FRIENDS:— 

I enclose Two Dollars to ,pay for a yearly 
subscription to THE FRA Magazine. 

N am e . 

A ddress_ 

Date 



Check Your Choice. One of these beautiful Roy- 
croft books, gratis, with every subscription for 

THE FRA MAGAZINE 

HEALTH AND WEALTH .... Hubbard 
The Broncho Book .... Capt. Jack Cranford 
Woman's Work - Alice Hubbard 

Battle of Waterloo - Victor Hugo 

White Hyacinths - Elbert Hubbard 

The Rubaiyat - Omar Khayyam 

A William Morris Book - Hubbard and Thomson 

Crimes Against Criminals - Robert G. Ingersoll 

A Christmas Carol - - - - Charles Dickens 

The Ballad of Reading Gaol - - v - Oscar Wilde 

Justinian and Theodora - - Elbert and Alice Hubbard 
BOUND VOL. LITTLE JOURNEYS - - Hubbard 

ARE YOU WITH US? 






TO THE HOMETOFi 





BY ELBERT 





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= • INTO'- 7=1 
KOOK-BY-THB 




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T HAVE always expended to the last shilling my surplus wealth 
in promoting this great and good cause of industrial betterment. 
The right reverend prelate is greatly deceived when he says that I 
have squandered my wealth in profligacy and luxury. I have never 
expended a pound in either ; all my habits are habits of temperance 
in all things, and I challenge the right reverend prelate and all bis 
abettors to prove the contrary, and I will give him and them the 
means of following me through every stage and month of my life. 

—ROBERT OWEN, in Speech before the House of Lords. 



LITTLE JOURNEYS 

N Germany, the land of philosophy, 
when the savants sail into a sea of 
doubt, some one cries, "Back to 
Kant!" 

In America, when professed democ- 
racy grows ambitious and evolves 
a lust for power, men say, "Back 
to Jefferson ! " 

In business, when employer forgets 
employee and both forget their better 
manhood, we say, "Back to Robert 
Owen. " 

We will not go back to Robert Owen — we will go on to Robert 
Owen, for his philosophy is still in the vanguard. 
Robert Owen was a business man. His first intent was to 
attain a practical success. He produced the article, and sold 
it at a profit. 

In this operation of taking raw material and manufacturing 
it into forms of use and beauty, from the time the seed was 
planted in the ground on up to the consumer who purchased 
the finished fabric and wove it, Owen believed that all should 
profit — all should be made happier by every transaction. 
That is to say, Robert Owen believed that a business trans- 
action where both sides do not make money is immoral. 
There is a legal maxim still cited in the courts, "Caveat 
emptor" — let the buyer beware. 

For this maxim Robert Owen had no respect. He scorned 
the thought of selling a man something the man did not 




ROBERT OWEN 



want ; or of selling an article for anything excepting exactly 
what it was, or of exacting a price for it by hook or crook, 
beyond its value. 

Robert Owen believed in himself, and in his product, and 
he believed in the people. He was a democratic optimist. 
He had faith in the demos; and the reason was that his 
estimate of the people was formed by seeing into his own 
heart. He realized that he was a part of the people, and he 
knew that he wanted nothing for himself which the world 
could not have on the same terms. He looked into the calm 
depths of his own heart and saw that he hated tyranny, 
pretense, vice, hypocrisy, extravagance and untruth. He 
knew in the silence of his own soul that he loved harmony, 
health, industry, reciprocity, truth and helpfulness. His 
desire was to benefit mankind, and to help himself by 
helping others. 

Therefore he concluded that, the source of all life being 
the same, he was but a sample of the average man, and 
all men would, if not intimidated and repressed, desire 
what he desired. 

When physically depressed through lack of diversified 
exercise, bad air, or wrong conditions, he realized that 
his mind was apt to be at war, not only with its best self, 
but with any person who chanced to be near. From this 
he argued that all departures in society were occasioned 
by wrong physical conditions, and in order to get a full 
and free expression of the Divine Mind, of which we are 
all reflectors or mediums, our bodies must have a right 
a 



ROBERT OWEN 



environment. ^ To get this Right Environment became the 
chief business and study of his life. 

To think that a man who always considers "the other 
fellow" should be a great success in a business way is to 
us more or less of a paradox. "Keep your eye on Number 
One," we advise the youth intent on success. "Take care 
of yourself," say the bucolic Solons when we start on a 
little journey. And "Self-preservation is the first law of 
life," voice the wise ones. 

And yet we know that the man who thinks only of himself, 
acquires the distrust of the whole community. He sets in 
motion forces that work against him, and has thereby 
created a handicap that blocks him at every step. 
Robert Owen was one of those quiet, wise men who win 
the confidence of men, and thereby siphon to themselves 
all good things. That the psychology of success should 
have been known to this man in Seventeen Hundred and 
Ninety, we might call miraculous, were it not for the fact 
that the miraculous is always the natural. 
Those were troublous times when Robert Owen entered 
trade. The French Revolution was on, and its fires lit up 
the intellectual sky of the whole world. The Colonies had 
been lost to England ; it was a time of tumult in Threadneedle 
Street; the armies of the world were lying on their arms 
awaiting orders. And out of this great unrest emerged Robert 
Owen, handsome, intelligent, honest, filled with a holy zeal 
to help himself by helping humanity. 
Robert Owen was born at the village of Newtown, Wales, 

3 



ROBERT OWEN 



in Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-one. After being away 
from his native village for many years, he returned, as did 
Shakespeare and as have so many successful men, and again 
made the place of his boyhood the home of his old age. Owen 
died in the house in which he was born. His body was buried 
in the same grave where sleeps the dust of his father and 
mother. During the eighty-seven years of his life he accom- 
plished many things and taught the world lessons which it has 
not yet memorized. 

In point of time, Robert Owen seems to have been the 
world's first Business Man. Private business was to him 
a public trust. He was a creator, a builder, an economist, 
an educator, a humanitarian. He got his education from 
his work, at his work, and strove throughout his long life 
to make it possible for others to do the same. 
He believed in the Divinity of Business. He anticipated 
Emerson by saying, "Commerce consists in making things 
for people who need them, and carrying them from where 
they are plentiful to where they are wanted." 
Every economist should be a humanitarian; and every 
humanitarian should be an economist. 
Charles Dickens, writing in Eighteen Hundred and Sixty, 
puts forth Scrooge, Carker and Bumball as economists. 
When Dickens wanted to picture ideal business men, he 
gave us the Cherryble brothers — men with soft hearts, giving 
pennies to all beggars, shillings to poor widows, and coal 
and loaves of bread to families living in rickety tenements. 
The Dickens idea of betterment was the priestly plan of dole. 

4 



ROBERT OWEN 



Dickens did not know that indiscriminate alms-giving pau- 
perizes humanity, and never did he supply the world a glimpse 
of a man like Robert Owen, whose charity was something 
more than palliation. 

Robert Owen was born in decent poverty, of parents who 
knew the simple, beautiful and necessary virtues of industry, 
sobriety and economy. Where this son got his hunger for 
books and his restless desire for achievement we do not 
know. He was a business genius, and from genius of any 
kind no hovel is immune. 

He was sent to London at the age of ten to learn the 
saddler's trade; at twelve he graduated from making wax- 
ends, blacking leather and greasing harness and took a 
position as salesman in the same business. 
From this he was induced to become a salesman for a 
haberdasher. He had charm of manner — fluidity, sympathy 
and health. At seventeen he asked to be paid a commission 
on sales instead of a salary, and on this basis he saved a 
hundred pounds in a year. 

At eighteen a customer told him of a wonderful invention — 
a machine that was run by steam — for spinning cotton into 
yarn. Robert was familiar with the old process of making 
woolen yarn on a spinning-wheel by hand — his mother did 
it and had taught him and his brothers and sisters how. 
fl Cotton was just coming in, since the close of "George 
Washington's Rebellion." Watt had watched his mother's 
teakettle to a purpose. Here were two big things destined 
to revolutionize trade — the use of cotton in place of flax 

5 



ROBERT OWEN 



or wool, and steam power instead of human muscle J> 
Robert Owen resigned his clerkship and invested all of his 
earnings in three mule spinning-machines. Then he bought 
cotton on credit. 

He learned the business, and the first year made three 
hundred pounds. 

Seeing an advertisement in a paper for an experienced 
superintendent of a cotton mill, he followed his intuitions, 
hunted out the advertiser, a Mr. Drinkwater, and asked 
for the place. 

Mr. Drinkwater looked at the beardless stripling, smiled 

and explained that he wanted a man, not a boy — a man 

who could take charge of a mill at Manchester, employing 

five hundred hands. 

Robert Owen stood his ground. 

What would he work for? 

Three hundred pounds a year. 

Bosh! Boys of nineteen could be had for fifty pounds a 
year. IJ "But not boys like me," said Robert Owen. 
Then he explained to Mr. Drinkwater his position — that 
he had a little mill of his own and had made three hundred 
pounds the first year. But he wanted to get into a larger 
field with men of capital. 

Mr. Drinkwater was interested. Looking up the facts he 
found them to be exactly as stated. He hired the youth 
at his own price and also bought all of young Mr. Owen's 
machinery and stock, raw and made up. 
Robert Owen, aged nineteen, went at once to Manchester 
6 



ROBERT OWEN 



and took charge of the mill. His business was to buy and 
install new machinery, hire all help, fix wages, buy the 
raw material and manufacture and sell the product. 
For six weeks he did not give a single order, hire a new man, 
nor discharge an old one. He silently studied the situation. 
He worked with the men — made friends with them, and 
recorded memoranda of his ideas. He was the first one at 
the factory in the morning — the last to leave it at night. 
After six weeks he began to act. 

The first year's profit was twenty per cent on the investment, 
against five for the year before. 

Drinkwater paid him four hundred pounds instead of three, 
and proposed it should be five hundred for the next year. 
A contract was drawn up, running for five years, giving 
Owen a salary, and also a percentage after sales mounted 
above a certain sum. 

Robert Owen was now twenty years of age. He was sole 
superintendent of the mill. The owner lived at London and 
had been up just once — this after Owen had been in his new 
position for three months. Drinkwater saw various improve- 
ments made in the plant — the place was orderly, tidy, 
cleanly and the workers were not complaining, although 
Owen was crowding out the work. 

Owen was on friendly terms with his people, visiting them 
in their homes. He had organized a day school for the smaller 
children and a night school for the older ones who worked 
in the mills. His friendliness, good cheer and enthusiasm 
were contagious. The place was prosperous. 

7 



ROBERT OWEN 



UST here let us take a side trip 
in this LITTLE JOURNEY long 
enough to inspect the peculiar 
conditions of the time. 
It was a period of transition— the 
old was dying, the new was being 
born Both experiences were 
painful. 

There was a rapid displacement of 
hand labor. One machine did the 
work of ten or more persons. What 
were these people who were thrown 
out to do? Adjust themselves to the new conditions, you 
say. True, but many could not. They starved, grew sick, ate 
their hearts out in useless complaining. 
Only a few years before, and the spinning of flax and wool 
was exclusively a home industry. Every cottage had its 
spinning-wheel and loom. There was a garden, a cow, a 
pig, poultry and fruits and flowers. The whole household 
worked, and the wheel and loom were never idle while it 
was light. The family worked in relays. 
It was a very happy and prosperous time. Life was simple 
and natural. There was constant labor, but it was diversified. 
The large flocks of sheep, raised chiefly for wool, made mutton 
cheap. Everything was homemade. People made things for 
themselves and if they acquired a superior skill they supplied 
their neighbors, or exchanged products with them. As the 
manufacturing was done in the homes there was no crowding 
8 




ROBERT OWEN 



of population. The factory boarding-house and the tenement 
were yet to come. 

This was the condition up to Seventeen Hundred and Seventy. 
From then until Seventeen Hundred and Ninety was the time 
of transition. By Seventeen Hundred and Ninety, mills were 
erected wherever there was water power, and the village 
artisans were moving to the towns to work in the mills. 
*] For the young men and women it was an alluring life. 
The old way gave them no time to themselves — there was 
the cow to milk, the pigs and poultry to care for, or the 
garden making insistent demands. Now they worked at 
certain hours for certain wages, and rested. Tenements 
took the place of cottages and the "public," with its 
smiling barkeep, was always right at the corner. 
Hargreaves, Arkwright, Watt and Eli Whitney had worked 
a revolution more far-reaching than did Mirabeau, Danton, 
Robespierre and Marat. 

Here creeps in an item interesting to our friends who revel 
in syntax and prosody. Any machine or apparatus for lifting 
has been called a "jack" since the days of Shakespeare. 
The jack was a bearer of bundles, a lifter, a puller, a worker. 
Any coarse bit of mechanism was called a jack, and is yet. 
In most factories there are testing jacks, gearing jacks, 
lifting jacks. Falstaff tells of a jack-of-all-trades. The jack 
was anything strong, patient and serviceable. 
When Hargreaves, the Lancashire carpenter, invented his 
spinning-machine a village wit called^it a "jenny." The 
machine was fine, delicate, subtle and, as spinning was a 

9 



ROBERT OWEN 



woman's business anyway, the new machine was parsed 
in the feminine gender. 

Soon the new invention took on a heavier and stronger 
form, and its persistency suggested to some other merry 
villager a new variation and it was called a "mule." The 
word stuck, and the mule-spinner is with us wherever 
cotton is spun. 

The discovery that coal was valuable for fuel followed the 
invention of the steam engine. 

When things are needed we dig down and find them, or 
reach up and secure them. You could not run a steamship, 
excepting along a river with well-wooded banks, any more 
than you could run an automobile with coal. 
The dealing in coal, or "coals" as our English cousins 
still use the word, began in Eighteen Hundred and Nineteen. 
That was the year the first steamship, the Savannah, crossed 
the ocean. She ran from Savannah to London. Her time was 
twenty-five days. She burned four hundred and fifty tons of 
coal, or about two-thirds of her entire carrying capacity. 
Robert Fulton had begun running his steamer "Clermont" 
on the Hudson in Eighteen Hundred and Seven, but there 
were wooding stations every twenty miles. 
It was argued in the House of Commons that no steamship 
could ever cross the Atlantic with steam, alone, as a pro- 
pelling power. And even as it was being mathematically 
proved, the whistle of the Savannah drowned the voice of 
the orator. 

But the Savannah also carried sail, and so the doubters 
10 



ROBERT OWEN 



still held the floor. An iron boat with no sails that could 
cross the Atlantic in five days, was a miracle that no optimist 
had forseen — much less, dared to prophecy. 
The new conditions almost threatened to depopulate the 
rural districts. Farmers forsook the soil. The uncertainty 
of a crop was replaced with the certainty of a given wage. 
Children could tend the spinning-jennies as well as men. 
There was a demand for child labor. Any poor man with 
a big family counted himself rich. Many a man who could 
not find a job at a man's wage quit work and was supported 
by his wife and children. To rear a family became a 
paying enterprise. 

Various mill-owners adopted children or took them under 
the apprentice system, agreeing to teach them the trade. 
Girls and boys from orphan asylums and workhouses were 
secured and held as practical slaves. They were herded in 
sheep-sheds where they slept on straw and were fed in 
troughs. They were worked in two shifts, night and day, 
so the straw was never really cold. They worked twelve 
hours, slept eight, and one hour was allowed for meals. 
Their clothing was not removed excepting on Saturday. 
*J Any alteration in the business life of a people is fraught 
with great danger. Recklessness, greed and brutality at 
such a time are rife. 

Almost all workingmen of forty or over were out of work. 
Naturally, employers hired only the young, the active, the 
athletic. These made more money than they were used to 
making, so they spent it lavishly and foolishly. It was a 

ii 



ROBERT OWEN 



prosperous time, yet strangely enough, prosperity brought 
starvation to thousands. Family life in many instances was 
destroyed and thus were built those long rows of houses, 
all alike, with no mark of individuality — no yards, no flowers, 
no gardens — that still in places mar the landscape in factory 
towns. Pretty girls went to the towns to work in the mills, 
and thus lost home ties. Later they drifted to London. 
Drunkenness increased. 

In Seventeen Hundred and Ninety-six, there was formed 
the Manchester Board of Health. Its intent was to guard 
the interests of factory workers. Its desire was to insure 
light, ventilation and sanitary conveniences for the workers. 
Beyond this it did not seek to go. 

The mill superintendents lifted a howl. They talked about 
interference, and depriving the poor people of the right to 
labor. They declared it was all a private matter between 
themselves and the workers — a matter of contract. 
Robert Owen, it seems, was the first factory superintendent 
to invite inspection of his plant. He worked with the Board 
of Health, not against it. He refused to employ children 
under ten years of age, and although there was a tax on 
windows, he supplied plenty of light and also fresh air. 
So great was the ignorance of the workers, that they 
regarded the Factory Laws as an infringement on their 
rights. The greed and foolish fears of the mill-owners 
prompted them to put out the good old argument that a 
man's children were his own, and that for the state to dictate 
to him where they should work, when and how, was a species 

12 



ROBERT OWEN 



of tyranny. Work was good for children! Let them run the 
streets? Never! 

It is a curious thing to note that when Senator Albert J. 
Beveridge endeavored to have a Federal Bill passed at 
Washington, in Nineteen Hundred and Seven, the argu- 
ments he had to meet and answer were those which Robert 
Owen and Sir Robert Peel were obliged to answer in Seven- 
teen Hundred and Ninety-five. 

When a man who worked a hundred orphans fourteen 
hours a day, boys and girls of from six to twelve, was 
accused of cruelty he defended himself by saying, "If I 
doesn't work 'em all the time 'cept when they sleep and 
eat, they will learn to play, and then never work." This 
argument was repeated by many fond parents as conclusive. 
<l The stress of the times — having many machines in one 
building, all run by one motor power, the necessity of 
buying raw material in quantities, the expense of finding 
a market — all these combined to force the invention of a 
very curious economic expediency. It was called a Joint 
Stock Company. From a man and his wife and his children 
making things at home, we get two or three men going 
into partnership and hiring a few of their neighbors at day 
wages J- jit 

Then we get the system of "share-holding," with hundreds 
or thousands of people as partners in a manufacturing 
enterprise which they never visit. 

The people who owned shares were the ones who owned 
the tools. Very naturally, they wanted and expected divi- 

13 



ROBERT OWEN 



dends for the use of the tools. That was all they wanted — 
dividends. The manager of the mill held his position only 
through his ability to make the venture bring returns. The 
people who owned the shares or the tools, never saw the 
people who used the tools. A great gulf lay between them. 
For the wrongs and injustice visited upon the workers no 
one^person was to blame. The fault was shifted. Everybody 
justified himself. And then came the saying, "Corporations 
have no souls." 

Robert Owen was manager of a mill, yet he saw the misery, 
the ignorance and the mental indifference that resulted from 
the factory system. He, too, must produce dividends, but 
the desire of his heart was also to mitigate the lot of the 
workers J- 

Books were written by good men picturing the evils of the 
factory system. Comparisons were made between the old 
and new in which the hideousness of the new was etched 
in biting phrase. Some tried to turn the dial backward and 
revive the cottage industries, as did Ruskin a little later. 
"A Dream of John Ball" was anticipated and many sighed 
for "the good old times." 

But among the many philosophers and philanthropists who 
wrestled with the problem, Robert Owen seems to have stood 
alone in the belief that success lay in going on, and not in 
turning back. He set himself to making the new condition 
tolerable and prophesied a day when out of the smoke and 
din of strife would emerge a condition that would make for 
health, happiness and prosperity such as this tired old world 

14 



ROBERT OWEN 



never has seen. Robert Owen was England's first Socialist. 
<J Very naturally, he was called a dreamer. Some called 
him an infidel, and the enemy of society. 
Very many now call him a seer and a prophet. 




N Robert Owen's day cotton yarn 
was packaged and sold in five- 
pound bundles. These packages 
were made up in hanks of a 
given number of yards jt One 
hundred and twenty counts to a 
package was fixed upon as " par" 
or "standard count." If the thread 
was very fine of course more hanks 
were required to make up the five 
pounds. The price ranged up or 
down, below or above the one 
hundred and twenty mark. That is, if a package contained 
two hundred and forty hanks, its value was just double 
what it would have been if merely standard. 
Robert Owen knew fabrics before he began to spin. First, 
he was a salesman. Second, he made the things he could sell. 
^ The one supremely difficult thing in business is sales- 
manship. Goods can be manufactured on formula, but it 

IS 




ROBERT OWEN 



takes a man to sell. He who can sell is a success— others 
may be. ^ The only men who succeed in dictating the policy 
of the house are those in the Sales Department; that is, 
those who are on the side of income, not of expense. 
The man with a "secret process" of manufacture always 
imparts his secret, sooner or later, but the salesman does 
not impart his secret, because he can't. It is not trans- 
ferable. It is a matter of personality. Not only does the 
salesman have to know his goods, but he must know the 
buyer — he must know humanity. 

And humanity was the raw stock in which Robert Owen 
dealt. Robert Owen never tried to increase his sales by 
decreasing his price. His product was always higher than 
standard. "Anybody can cut prices," he said, "but it takes 
brains to make a better article." He focused on fineness. 
•J And soon buyers were coming to him. A finer article 
meant a finer trade. And now, on each package of yarn 
that Owen sent out he placed a label that read thus, "This 
package was made under the supervision of Robert Owen." 
Thus his name gradually became a synonym for quality. 
<J Among other curious ideas held by Owen was that to 
make finer goods you must have a finer quality of workman. 
To produce this finer type of person now became his dream. 
<j Mr. Drinkwater smiled at the idea and emphasized 
"dividends. " 

Now Mr. Drinkwater had a son-in-law who looked in on 
things once a month, signed his voucher; and went away 
fox-hunting. He thought he was helping run the mill. 
16 



ROBERT OWEN 



This man grew jealous of the young manager and suggested 
that Drinkwater increase the boy's pay and buy off the 
percentage clause in the contract so to keep the youngster 
from getting meglacephalia. 

Drinkwater asked Owen what he would take for the contract 
and Owen handed it to him and said, "Nothing." It gave 
him a chance to get out into a larger field. Drinkwater 
never thought of the value of that little Robert Owen label. 
No wise employer should ever allow a thing like that. 
Owen had won both a name and fame among the mer- 
chants and he now engaged with several mills, to superintend 
their output and sell their goods with his label on each 
package. In other words he was a Manufacturer's Broker. 
From a five-hundred-pound-a-year man he had grown to 
be worth two thousand pounds a year. 
No mill owned him. He was free — he was making money. 
The dream of human betterment was still in his heart. 
1$ On one of his trips to Glasgow to sell goods, he met a 
daughter of David Dale, a mill-owner who was in active 
competition with him. Dale made a fine yarn, too. 
The girl had heard of Owen — they met as enemies — a very 
good way to begin an acquaintance. It was Nature's old, 
old game of stamen, pistil and pollen, that fertilizes the 
world of business, betterment and beauty. They quarreled. 
"You are the man who puts your name on the package?" 
"Yes." 

"And yet you own no mill!" 
"True— but— " 

17 



ROBERT OWEN 



"Never mind. You certainly are proud of your name." 

" I am — would n't you be?" 
"Not of yours." 

Then they stared at each other in defiance. To relieve the 
tension, Mr. Owen proposed a stroll. They took a walk 
through the park and discovered that they both were inter- 
ested in Social Reform. David Dale owned the mills at New 
Lanark — a most picturesque site. He was trying to carry on 
a big business, so as to make money and help the workers. 
He was doing neither, because his investment in the plant 
had consumed too much of his working capital. 
They discussed the issue until eleven forty-five by the clock. 
^ The girl knew business and knew society. The latter she 
had no use for. 

The next day they met again, and quite accidentally found 
themselves engaged, neither of 'em knew how. 
It was very embarrassing 1 How could they break the news 
to Papa Dale? 

They devised a way. It was this: Robert Owen was to go 

and offer to buy Mr. Dale's mills. 

Owen went over to Lanark and called on Mr. Dale, and 
told him he wanted to buy his business. Mr. Dale looked at 
the boy, and smiled. Owen was twenty-seven, but appeared 
twenty, being beardless, slight and fair-haired. 
The youth said he could get all the money that was needed. 
They sparred for a time — neither side naming figures. It 
being about noon time, Mr. Dale asked young Mr. Owen 
to go over to his house to lunch. Mr. Dale was a widower, 
18 



OBERT OWEN 



but his daughter kept the house. Mr. Dale introduced Mr. 
Owen to Miss Dale. 

The young folks played their parts with a coolness that 
would have delighted John Drew, and would have been 
suspicious to anybody but a fussy old mill-owner. 
Finally as the crumbs were being brushed from the rich 
man's table, Mr. Dale fixed on the sum of sixty thousand 
pounds for his property. 

Owen was satisfied and named as terms three thousand 
pounds and interest each year for twenty years, touching 
the young lady's toe with his own under the table. 
Mr. Dale agreed. Mr. Owen had the money to make the 
first payment. The papers were drawn up. The deal was 
closed — all but the difficult part. This was done by rushing 
the enemy in his library, after a good meal. "It keeps the 
business in the family, you see, " said the girl on her knees, 
pouting prettily. 

The point was gained and when Robert Owen, a few 
weeks later, came to New Lanark to take possession of 
the property, he did as much for the girl. So they were 
married and lived happily ever afterward. 




19 



ROBERT OWEN 



OBERT OWEN took up his work 
at New Lanark with all the en- 
thusiasm that hope, youth and 
love could bring to bear. 
Mr. Dale had carried the flag as 
far to the front as he thought 
it could be safely carried; that is 
to say, as far as he was able to 
carry it. 

Owen had his work cut out for 
him. The workers were mostly 
Lowland Scotch and spoke in an 
almost different language from Owen. They looked upon 
him with suspicion. The place had been sold and they had 
gone with it — how were they to be treated? Were wages 
to be lowered and hours extended? Probably. 
Pilfering had been reduced to a system, and to get the start 
of the soft-hearted owner was considered smart. 
Mr. Dale had tried to have a school and to this end had 
hired an elderly Irishman, who gave hard lessons and a 
taste of the birch to children who had exhausted themselves 
in the mills and had no zest for learning. Mr. Dale had 
taken on over two hundred pauper children from the work- 
houses and these were a sore trial to him. 
Owen's first move was to reduce the working hours from 
twelve to ten hours. Indeed, he was the first mill-owner 
to adopt the ten-hour plan. He improved the sanitary 
arrangements, put in shower baths and took a personal 

20 




ROBERT OWEN 



interest in the diet of his little wards, often dining with 
them jt 

A special school building was built at a cost of thirty thousand 
dollars. This was both a day and a night school jt It also 
took children of one year old and over, in order to relieve 
mothers who worked in the mills. "The little mothers," 
often only four or five years old, took care of babies a year 
old and younger all day. Owen instructed his teachers 
never to scold or punish by inflicting physical pain. His 
was the first school in Christendom to abolish the rod. 
^ His plan anticipated the Kindergarten and the Creche. He 
called mothers' meetings and tried to show the uselessness 
of scolding and beating, because to do these things was 
really to teach the children to do them. He abolished the 
sale of strong drink in New Lanark. Model houses were 
erected, gardens planted and prizes given for the raising 
of flowers. 

In order not to pauperize his people, Owen had them pay 
a slight tuition for the care of the children and there was 
also a small tax levied to buy flower seeds. 
In the school building was a dance hall and an auditorium. 
<J At one time the supply of raw cotton was cut off for 
four months. During this time Owen paid his people full 
wages, insisted that they should all, old and young, go to 
school for two hours a day and work also two hours a day 
at tree planting, grading and gardening. During this period 
of idleness he paid out seven thousand pounds in wages. 
This was done to keep the workmen from wandering away. 

21 



ROBERT OWEN 



*J It need not be imagined that Owen did not have other 
cares besides those of social betterment jt Much of the 
machinery in the mills was worn and becoming obsolete. 
To replace this he borrowed a hundred thousand dollars. 
Then he reorganized his business as a stock company and 
sold shares to several London merchants with whom he 
dealt. He interested Jeremy Bentham, the great jurist 
and humanitarian, and Bentham proved his faith by buying 
stock in the New Lanark Company. 
Joseph Lancaster, the Quaker, a mill-owner and philan- 
thropist, did the same. 

Owen paid a dividend of five per cent on his shares. A 
surplus was also set aside to pay dividends in case of a 
setback, but beyond this the money was invested in bettering 
the environment of his people. 

New Lanark had been running fourteen years under Owen's 
management. It had attracted the attention of the civilized 
world. The Grand Duke Nicholas, afterwards the Czar, spent 
a month with Owen studying his methods. The Dukes of 
Kent, Sussex, Bedford and Portland; the Archbishop of 
Canterbury; the Bishops of London, Peterborough and Car- 
lisle; the Marquis of Bluntly; Lords Grosvenor, Carnarvon, 
Granville, Westmoreland, Shaftesbury and Manners ; General 
Sir Thomas Dyce and General Brown ; Ricardo, De Crespigny, 
Wilberf orce, Joseph Butterworth and Sir Francis Baring all 
visited New Lanark. Writers, preachers, doctors, in fact almost 
every man of intellect and worth in the Kingdom knew of 
Robert Owen and his wonderful work at New Lanark. Sir 

22 



ROBERT OWEN 



Robert Peel had been to New Lanark and had gone back 
home and issued an official bulletin inviting mill-owners to 
study and pattern after the system. 

The House of Commons invited Owen to appear and explain 
his plan for abolishing poverty from the Kingdom. He was 
invited to lecture in many cities. He issued a general call 
to all mill-owners in the Kingdom to co-operate with him 
in banishing ignorance and poverty. 
But to a great degree Owen worked alone and New Lanark 
was a curiosity. Most mill towns had long rows of dingy 
tenements, all alike, guiltless of paint, with not a flower 
bed or tree to mitigate the unloveliness of the scene. Down 
there in the dirt and squalor lived the working-folks; while 
away up on the hillside, surrounded by a vast park, with 
stables, kennels and conservatories, resided the owner. 
Owen lived with his people. And the one hundred and fifty 
acres that made up the village of New Lanark contained a 
happy, healthy and prosperous population of about two 
thousand people. 

There was neither pauperism nor disease, neither gamblers 
nor drunkards. All worked and all went to school. 
It was an object lesson of thrift and beauty. 
Visitors came from all over Europe — often hundreds a day. 
<J Why could not this example be extended indefinitely so that 
hundreds of such villages should grow instead of only one ? 
There could, and there can and there will be, but the people 
must evolve their own ideal environment and not have to 
have it supplied for them. 

*3 



ROBERT OWEN 



By Owen's strength of purpose he kept the village ideal, 
but he failed to evolve an ideal people. All around were 
unideal surroundings, and the people came and went. 
Strong drink was to be had only a few miles away. To have 
an ideal village, it must be located in an ideal country. 
Owen called on the clergy to unite with him in bringing 
about an ideal material environment. He said that good 
water, sewerage and trees and flowers worked a better 
spiritual condition. They replied by calling him a materialist. 
He admitted that he worked for a material good. His 
followers added to his troubles by comparing his work 
with that of the clergy round about, where vice, poverty 
and strong drink grouped themselves about a steeple upon 
which was a cross of gold to which labor was nailed — a 
simile to be used later by a great orator, with profit. 
Owen was a Unitarian, with a Quaker bias. Any clergyman 
was welcome to come to New Lanark — it was a free platform. 
A few preachers accepted the invitation, with the intent to 
convert Robert Owen to their particular cause. New Lanark 
was pointed out all over England as a godless town. The 
bishops issued a general address to all rectors and curates 
warning them against "any system of morals that does 
away with God and His Son, Jesus Christ, fixing its salvation 
on flower beds and ragged schools." 
New Lanark was making money, because it was producing 
goods the world wanted. But its workers were tabu in 
respectable society and priestly hands were held aloft in 
pretended horror whenever the name of Robert Owen, or 

24 



ROBERT OWEN 



the word "Socialism" was used. Owen refused to employ 
child labor and issued a book directing the attention of 
society to this deadly traffic in human beings. The parents, 
the clergy and the other mill-owners combined against him 
and he was denounced by press and pulpit. 
He began to look around for a better environment for an 
ideal community. His gaze was turned toward America. 




OBERT OWEN'S plan for abol- 
ishing vice and poverty was simply 
to set the people to work under 
ideal conditions, and then allow 
them time enough for recreation 
and mental exercise, so that thrift 
might follow farming. 
In reply to the argument that the 
workman should evolve his own 
standard of life, independent of 
his employer, Owen said that 
the mill with its vast aggregation 
of hands was an artificial condition. The invention, ingenuity 
and enterprise that evolved the mill were exceptional. The 
operators for the most part lacked this constructive genius, 
the proof of which lay in the very fact that they were 

25 




ROBERT OWEN 



operators. To take advantage of their limitations, disrupt 
their natural and accustomed mode of life and then throw 
the blame back upon them for not evolving a new and better 
environment, was not reasonable nor right. 
The same constructive genius that built the mill and operated 
it, should be actively interested in the welfare of the people 
who worked in the mill. 

To this end there should be an ideal village adjacent to 
every great mill. This village should afford at least half 
an acre of ground for every family. In the way of economy, 
one building should house a thousand people. It should be 
built in the form of a parallelogram and contain co-operative 
kitchens, dining-rooms, libraries, art galleries and gym- 
nasia. It should be, in fact, a great University, not unlike 
the great collection of schools at Oxford or Cambridge. 
All would be workers — all would be students. 
The villages should be under the general supervision of the 
government, in order to secure stability and permanency. 
If the mill management failed, the government should 
continue the business, because even if the government lost 
money in the venture, at times, this was better than always 
to be building jails, prisons, insane asylums, almshouses and 
hospitals J> 

In sections where there were no mills or factories, the 
government would construct both mills and villages, to 
the intent that idleness and ignorance might be without 
excuse. To this end Owen would ask all landowners, or 
holders of estates of a thousand acres or more, to set apart 
26 



ROBERT OWEN 



one-tenth of their land for ideal villages and co-operative 
mills to be managed by the government. 
As proof that his plans were feasible, Owen pointed to New 
Lanark and invited investigation. 

Among others who answered the invitation was Henry Hase, 
cashier of the Bank of England. Hase reported that New 
Lanark had the look of a place that had taken a century 
to evolve and, in his mind, the nation could not do better 
than to follow the example of Owen. He then added, "If 
the clergy, nobility and mill-owners will adopt the general 
scientific method proposed by Mr. Owen for the abolition of 
poverty, ignorance and crime, it will be the greatest step 
of progress ever seen in the history of the world." 
In proposing that the clergy, nobility and mill-owners 
should unite for the good of mankind, Mr. Hase was not 
guilty of subtle humor or ironical suggestion. He was an 
honest and sincere man who had been exposed to the con- 
tagious enthusiasm of Mr. Owen. 

Owen was fifty-seven years of age, practical man that he 
was, before he realized that the clergy, the nobility and 
the rich mill-owners had already entered into an unconscious 
pact to let mankind go to Gehenna — just so long as the 
honors, emoluments and dividends were preserved. 
That is to say, the solicitation of the Church is not and 
never has been for the welfare of the people; it is for the 
welfare of the Church for which churchmen fight All 
persecution turns on this point. 

If stability of the Church is threatened, the churchmen 

27 



ROBERT OWEN 



awake and cry, "To Arms!" In this respect the Church, 
the nobility and vested capital have everything in common 
— they want perpetuity and security. They seek safety. All 
of the big joint stock companies had in their directorates 
members of the nobility and the clergy. The bishops held 
vast estates — they were Lords. 

The Church livings were rooted in the estates of the nobility 
and both traced to a common ancestor — greed The Gov- 
ernment was a government of the people, by the Church 
and nobility, for the Church and nobility. 
Robert Owen did not represent either the Church or nobility. 
He was a very exceptional and unique product; he was a 
workingman who had become a philanthropic capitalist. He 
was a lover of humanity, filled with a holy zeal to better the 
condition of the laborer. 




28 



ROBERT OWEN 



HE mills at New Lanark were 
making money, but the share- 
holders in London were not 
satisfied with their dividends J> 
They considered Owen's plans 
for educating the workingman 
chimerical. In one respect they 
knew that Owen was sane — he 
could take the raw stock and 
produce the quality of goods 
that had a market value. He 
had trained up a valuable and 
skilled force of foremen and workers. Things were pros- 
perous and would be much more so if Owen would only 
cease dreaming dreams and devote himself to the com- 
mercial end of the game. 

If he would not do this, then he must buy their stock or 
sell them a controlling interest of his own. 
He chose the latter. 

In Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-five, when he was fifty- 
five years old, he sailed for America. He gave lectures in 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington on his 
new order of economics. He was listened to with profound 
attention. At Washington he was the guest of the President, 
and on invitation addressed a joint session of the Senate 
and the House, setting forth his arguments for Socialism. 
<} The Moravians at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, had founded 
their colony as early as Seventeen Hundred and Twenty. 

29 




ROBERT OWEN 



The Zoarites, the Economites, the Separatists, the Shakers, 
and the Rappites had been in existence and maintained 
successful communities for a score of years. 
Robert Owen visited these various colonies and saw that 
they were all prosperous. There was neither sickness, vice, 
poverty, drunkenness nor disease to be found among them. 
He became more and more convinced that the demands 
of an advancing civilization would certainly be co-operative 
in nature. Chance might unhorse the individual, but with 
a community the element of chance was eliminated. He 
laid it down as a maxim, evolved from his study, observation 
and experience, that the community that exists for three 
years is a success. That no industrial community had ever 
endured for three years, save as it was founded on a religious 
concept, was a fact that he overlooked. Also, he failed to 
see that the second generation of communists did not 
coalesce, and as a result that thirty-three years was the 
age limit for even a successful community; and that if it 
still survived, it was because it was reorganized under a 
strong and dominant leadership. 

Communists or Socialists are of two classes — those who 
wish to give and those who wish to get. When fifty-one 
per cent of the people in a community are filled with a 
desire to give, Socialism will be a success. 
Perhaps the most successful social experiment in America 
was the Oneida Community, but next to this was the Har- 
monyites, founded by George Rapp J> The Harmonyites 
founded Harmony, Indiana, in Eighteen Hundred and 
30 



ROBERT OWEN 



Fourteen. They moved from Pennsylvania and had been 
located at their present site for eleven years. They 
owned thirty thousand acres of splendid land at the junction 
of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers. They had built over a 
hundred houses, had barns, stores, a church, a hall, a saw- 
mill, a hotel and a woolen factory. 
Now when Owen went to Pittsburg, he floated down the 
Ohio to Cincinnati and then on to Harmony Jt He was 
graciously received and was delighted with all he saw and 
heard J> jfi 

Owen saw the success of the woolen mill and declared that 
to bring cotton up by steamboats from the South, would 
be easy. He would found cotton mills and here New Lanark 
should bloom again only on an increased scale. 
Would the Rappites sell? 

Yes, they wanted to move back to Pennsylvania, where 
there were other groups of similar faith. 
Their place, they figured, was worth two hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars. Owen made an offer of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, which to his surprise was quietly 
accepted. It was a quick deal. 

The Rappites moved out, and the Owenites moved in. 
Just across the Ohio River they founded the town of 
Owensboro jt jt 

Then Owen went back to England and sent over about 
three hundred of his people, including his own son, Robert 
Dale Owen. 

Robert Owen had large interests in England, and New 

3i 



ROBERT OWEN 



Harmony on the banks of the Wabash was incidental. 
Robert Dale Owen was then twenty-five years old. He was 
a philosopher, not an economist, and since the place lacked 
a business head, dissensions arose. Let some one else tell 
how quickly a community can evaporate when it lacks the 
cement of religious oneness: 

For the first few] weeks, all entered into the new system 
with a will. Service was the order of the day. Men who seldom 
or never before labored with their hands, devoted themselves 
to agriculture and the mechanical arts with a zeal which 
was at least commendable, though not always well directed. 
Ministers of the gospel guided the plow and called swine to 
their corn instead of sinners to repentance, and let patience 
have her perfect work over an unruly yoke of oxen Mer- 
chants exchanged the yardstick for the rake or pitchfork; 
and all appeared to labor cheerfully for the common weal. 
Among the women there was even more apparent self- 
sacrifice. Those who had seldom seen the inside of their 
ownjritchens went into that of the common eating-house 
(formerly a hotel) and made themselves useful among pots 
and kettles. Refined young ladies who had been waited upon 
all their lives, took turns in waiting upon others at the table. 
And several times a week all parties who chose, mingled in 
the social dance in the great dining-hall. 
But notwithstanding the apparent heartiness and cordiality 
of this auspicious opening, it was in the social atmosphere of 
the Community that the first cloud arose. Self-love was a 
spirit which could not be exorcised. It whispered to the lowly 
maidens, whose former position in society had cultivated the 
spirit of meekness — "Thou art as good as the formerly rich 
and fortunate; insist upon your equality." It reminded the 
former favorites of society of their lost superiority, and de- 

32 



ROBERT OWEN 



spite all rules tinctured their words and actions with "airs" 
and conceit. S imil ar thoughts and feelings soon arose among 
the men; and though not so soon exhibited they were none 
the less deep and strong. Suffice it to say, that at the end of 
three months — three months ! — the leading minds in the com- 
munity were compelled to acknowledge to each other that the 
social life of the Community could not be bounded by a single 
circle. They therefore acquiesced, though reluctantly, in its 
division into many. But they still hoped and many of them 
no doubt believed that though social equality was a failure, 
community of property was not. Whether the law of mine and 
thine is natural or incidental in human character, it soon 
began to develope its sway. The industrious, the skilful and 
the strong saw the product of their labor enjoyed by the 
indolent, the unskilled and the improvident; and self-love 
rose against benevolence. A band of musicians thought their 
brassy harmony was as necessary to the common happiness 
as bread and meat, and declined to enter the harvest-field 
or the workshop. A lecturer upon natural science insisted 
upon talking while others worked. Mechanics, whose single 
day's labor brought two dollars into the common stock, in- 
sisted that they should in justice work only half as long as 
the agriculturist whose day's work brought but one. 
Of course, for a while, these jealousies were concealed, 
but soon they began to be expressed. It was useless to remind 
all parties that the common labor of all ministered to the 
prosperity of the Community. Individual happiness was the 
law of nature and it could not be obliterated. And before a 
single year had passed, this law had scattered the members 
of that society which had come together so earnestly and 
under such favorable circumstances and driven them back 
into the selfish world from which they came. 
The writer of this sketch has since heard the history of 



33 



ROBERT OWEN 



that eventful year reviewed with honesty and earnestness 
by the best men and most intelligent parties of that unfor- 
tunate social experiment J- They admitted the favorable 
circumstances which surrounded its commencement; the 
intelligence, devotion and earnestness which were brought 
to the cause by its projectors and its final total failure. And 
they rested ever after in the belief that man though disposed 
to philanthropy, is essentially selfish and a community of 
social equality and common property an impossibility. 




HE loss of two hundred thousand 
dollars did not dampen the ardor 
of Robert Owen. He paid up the 
debts of New Harmony, had the 
property surveyed and subdivided 
and then deeded it to his children 
and immediate relatives and a few 
of the "staunch friends who have 
such a lavish and unwise faith in 
my wisdom" — to use his own ex- 
pression J- & 

To give work to the unemployed 
of England now became his immediate solicitation. He was 
sixty years old when he inaugurated his first co-operative 
store, which in fact is the parent of our modern Department 
Store jt jt 
34 





ROBERT OWEN 



In this store he proposed to buy any useful article or product 
which any man might make or produce, figuring on cost of 
the raw material and six pence an hour for labor. This labor 
was to be paid for in Labor Script, receivable in payment 
for anything the man might want to buy. Here we get the 
Labor Exchange jt Owen proposed that the Government 
should set delinquent men to work, instead of sending them 
to prison. Any man who would work, no matter what he 
had done, should be made free. The Government would 
then pay the man in Labor Exchange Script. Of course, 
if the Government guaranteed the script, it was real money ; 
otherwise it was wild-cat money, subject to fluctuation and 
depreciation. Very naturally the Government refused to 
guarantee this script, or to invest in the co-operative stores. 
To make the script valuable, it had to be issued in the form 
of a note, redeemable in gold at a certain time. 
The stores were started, and many idle men found work in 
building mills and starting various industries. 
Three years passed and some of the script became due. It 
was found to be largely held by saloon-keepers who had 
accepted it at half price. Efforts had been constantly made 
to hurt Owen's standing and depreciate the market value 
of this currency. 

The Labor Exchange that had issued the script was a 
corporation, and Robert Owen was not individually liable, 
but he stepped into the breach and paid every penny out 
of his own purse, saying, "No man shall ever say that he 
lost money by following my plans." 

35 



ROBERT OWEN 



Next he founded the co-operative village of Harmony or 
Queenswood. The same general plan that he had followed 
at New Lanark was here carried out, save that he endeavored 
to have the mill owned by the workers instead of by outside 
capital ,* jt 

Through his very able leadership, this new venture continued 
for ten years and was indeed a school and a workshop. The 
workers had gardens, flowers, books. There were debates, 
classes and much intellectual exercise that struck sparks 
from heads that were once punk. John Tyndall was one of 
the teachers and also a worker in this mill. Let the fact stand 
out that Owen discovered Tyndall — a great, divinely human 
nautilus — and sent him sailing down the tides of Time. 
At eighty years of age, Owen appeared before the House 
of Commons and read a paper which he had spent a year 
in preparing — "The Abolition of Poverty and Crime." He 
held the Government responsible for both, and said that until 
the ruling class took up the reform idea and quit their policy 
of palliation, society would wander in the wilderness. To 
gain the Promised Land we must all move together in a 
government "of the people, by the people and for the 
people." He was listened to with profound respect and a 
vote of thanks was tendered him; but his speech never 
reached the public printer. 

Robert Dale Owen became a naturalized citizen of the 
United States, and for several years was a member of 
Congress. And at the time of the death of his father was 
our minister to Italy, having been appointed by President 
36 



ROBERT OWEN 



Pierce. ^ At the time he was in England, and announced 
the passing of Robert Owen to the family at New Harmony, 
Indiana, in the following letter: 

Newtown, Wales, 

November 17th, 1858. 
It is all over. Our dear father passed away this morning, 
at a quarter before seven, as quietly and gently as if he had 
been falling asleep. There was not the least struggle, not 
the contraction of a limb or a muscle, not an expression 
of pain on his face. His breathing stopped so gradually 
that, even fas I held his hand, I could [scarcely tell the 
moment when he no longer lived. His last words, distinctly 
pronounced about twenty minutes before his death, were: 
"Relief has come." 



37 



Clbert iJubtiarb 
will give his Heart to Heart Talk, 
"The March of the Centuries," as follows: 

ST. LOUIS, MO— Friday Evening, February 12th. Fine 
Arts, " Memorial Hall," Locust and 1 9th St. Seats on 
sale at Bollman Bros. Piano Co., 1120 Olive St. 

PITTSBURG, PA. — Tuesday Evening, February 23rd. 
Carnegie Hall, (North Side). Seats on sale at Boggs 
& Buhl's Book Department one week in advance. 

BOSTON, MASS.— Thursday Evening, March 4th. Chick- 
ering Hall, Huntington Ave. Seats on sale at Box 
Office. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA.— Friday Evening, March the 19th. 

Witherspoon Hall, Walnut, Juniper and Sansom Sts. 

Seats on sale at John Wanamaker's Book Department. 
NEW YORK CITY— Sunday Evening, March 28th. 

Carnegie Hall, 53rd and 7th Ave. Seats on sale at Box 

Office one week in advance. 
CHICAGO, ILL.— Sunday Afternoon at Three o'Clock, 

April 4th. Studebaker Theatre. Seats at Box Office. 
DENVER, COL.— Tuesday Evening, April 6th. Woman's 

Club Hall, Glenam Street. Seats on sale at Business 

Office of "The Denver Post." 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.— Sunday Afternoon, at Three 

o'Clock, April 11th. Van Ness Theatre, Van Ness Ave. 

Seats on sale at Box Office one week in advance. 

On these Joyous Occasions named above, the Price of Reserved 
Seats will be just Fifty Cents, and no more. The best seats 
will be sold to those Wise Children of Light who first apply 



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^mHOREAU, long since dead and gone, 
tl In name and fame still lrveth on. 
^■J' 'T was he, when at the evening meal 
Asked for which dish he seemed to feel 
A preference, in drawling answer said, 
Though many viands there were spread — 

"The nearest." 
Long years a query's pestered me; 
'T is this : would Henry David Thoreau, he 
If asked which pretty Concord miss 
Of his acquaintance he would kiss, 
Have drawled in answer as before, 
In Emersonian days of yore, 

"The nearest." 
— Leonard Nichols 



Artistic Printing 

HE Roycrofters do not run a Job 
Printing Garage. However, they are 
willing to lend their skill, time and 
talent for the benefit of the Faithful 
who desire printed publicity in precise propor- 
tions. So if your dues are paid and you are 
fletcherizing and practicing deep breathing, 
thinking well of everybody (or fairly so) why 
just send along your printing orders, and we 
will take care of them. We produce both Art 
and Artists, and what is better we reproduce 
life. We can supply you phosphorus and origin- 
al designs for Folders, Letter-heads, Addresses, 
Memorials, Circulars and Booklets. We print 
anything that is not kiboshed by Comstock. 
We fly the gonfanon of Health and Success, 
and never does our work border upon the 
gonpeterxyx. As before intimated, if you 
want fine printing done de luxe, come and 
nestle under our Paisley. 

THE ROYCROFTERS 

East Aurora, Erie County, New York 




HALF PRICE OFFER 

WORKS OF THOMAS W. LAWSON 



Are 



one of the millions 



r 



• MAGAZINE 



you 

who have read with pounding heart and 
bated breath every word of Mr. LawBon's 
that lias api>eared In print? And since the 
appearance of Mr. Lawson's last magazine 
article have regretted one thousand times 
the absence of Mr. Lawson's monumental 
works in permanent form from your book 
shelves ? j 

' 'THE FUTURE OF OUR COUNTRY" 

the first of a new series by Mr. Lawson, 
appears In the December number <»f the 
Nkw England Magazine. The subject is 
the broadest Mr. t,awson has undertaken 
to write upon. And in the first article, Mr. 
Lawson makes it plain that he is still the 
seer and the prophet. 

"FRENZIED FINANCE." Wehave secured 
a few copies of the voluineeuntalnlng Mr. 
I^awson's " Frenzied Fbianee," the first 
thirty-two chapters, published by the Kldg- 
way Co. at $1.60. 

"FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH." We a&VC 
also secured a few copies of Mr. Lawson's 
"Friday the Thirteenth," as it appeared in 
" Kverybody's," published by Doubleday, 
Page it Co., at fl.GO. 

New England's M um/imi- Beautiful 

With one year's subscription to the New England Magazine to begin with the 
December number and include "The Future of Our Country," complete. If order Is 
accompanied by check for $3.00 and the coupon below, we will send you by mall, 
prepaid, without additional charge, both "Frenzied Finance" and "Friday the 
Thirteenth** In original attractive bindings. J We regret that we can till orders only 
as long as the volumes last, t We regret also that the large demand for the December 
number makes it necessary for us to announce that we can no longer supply orders 
for single December copies, but must reserve the few on hand for yearly subscribers. 

NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE CO. Old South Building, Boston, Mass. 

ItKitTKAND L. Chapman, President - 

MAIL THIS COUPON TO-DAY 

NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE, Old South Building, Boston, Mass. 

fientlemen— ! wish to take advantage of yonr half price offer. Enclosed herewith 
$s.00 [three dollars] for which please send me the New England Magazine for one 
year, containing "The Future of Our Country/' by Thomas W. Lawson, and in addi- 
tion, prepaid, and without extra charge, ^'Frenzied Finance" and "Friday the 
Thirteenth" in attractive, original bindings. 




HARACTER 
AND 
PERSONAL 
FORCE ARE 
THE ONLY INVEST; 
MENTS THAT ARE 
WORTH ANYTHING 

W H I T M A N 
















T IS A WISE 
MAN WHO 
KNOWS HIS 
OWN BUS- 



INESS; AND IT IS 
A WISER MAN 
WHO THOROUGHLY 



ATTENDS TO IT